Abortion basically consists of the interruption and termination, prematurely, of pregnancy. This interruption can occur completely naturally (and involuntarily), or voluntarily. In turn, we refer to spontaneous abortion to one that occurs spontaneously, and must be differentiated from induced abortion (which is one in which the termination of pregnancy is voluntary).
When we are faced with a miscarriage it means that it is a Abortion , which occurs before the loss of a fetus or embryo due to natural causes before the 20th week of pregnancy.
There are different causes that can lead to the occurrence of a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion, the most common when the death of the fetus is due to congenital or genetic malformations, which cause the normal development of the same is unfeasible.
However, there are other causes that can influence the loss of pregnancy. Next we are going to talk to you about which are the most common and habitual ones.
Bad genetic or congenital formation
The highest incidence in this type of cases occurs especially until week 6 or 7 of pregnancy. This type of abortion occurs when the fetus is not forming correctly, and the woman's body expels it because its development is totally unfeasible.
The most common is that the woman does not even get to know that she has been pregnant, since she understands that menstruation has come late, and also does not see any other symptom that may make her suspect of the failed pregnancy, especially if the abortion It occurs very early. In fact, it is stimulated that around 37.5% of early abortions occur mostly between weeks 10 and 13 of pregnancy.
Within this cause we can find the possibility that it is a anembryous pregnancy , popularly also known by the name of empty egg . It happens when the fertilized ovum does not become an embryo, so it has not come to be formed.
Deferred or withheld abortion
Known by the name of abortion withheld , or also just like deferred abort , occurs especially when the heart of the fetus has stopped beating, so that it can only be diagnosed at the time when a follow-up ultrasound is being carried out.
In this way, this type of abortion occurs when the fetus dies inside the mother's body, and the mother retains it for several weeks, without expelling the fetus, the placenta or the rest of the products that have been formed up to the Moment of pregnancy.
How is it treated? When it is diagnosed, medications that help to expel fetal tissue may be prescribed, although it is sometimes possible for the woman's body to be able to expel the rest of the pregnancy partially or totally, without treatment. However, when this does not happen, and drugs do not help, it is necessary to perform dilation and curettage, which is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the fetal tissue present in the uterus is scraped.
When a woman is pregnant, to support the weight of the fetus (especially after 14 or 15 weeks of pregnancy) the cervix must be well closed. But if the cervix is loose, has not closed well, and is not diagnosed in time, it is possible that the fetus "falls" and an abortion occurs due to cervical incompetence.
How is it treated? If it is diagnosed early, it is usual to practice cervical cerclage , which consists in closing the cervix by basting it with the help of a special thread. Then, at the time of delivery, this thread is removed.
Vesicular (or hydatidiform) mole
It is a degeneration in the form of vesicles that occurs in the placenta, which invade the entire egg little by little. This degeneration can be complete (meaning that it has invaded the egg completely), or embryo (when the embryo is still there, but it is insurmountable).
The most obvious physical symptom is that the volume of the uterus is much greater than it would actually correspond in the weeks of pregnancy in which the woman is. In addition, it can be detected in an ultrasound scan or blood loss.
In turn, if a pregnancy hormone analysis , also known as HCG, it is likely to be observed that their values have increased dramatically.
How is it treated? To treat it, a curettage should be performed by aspiration. In addition, the pathology must be monitored and reviewed for at least one year as this disease can continue to progress even after the curettage has occurred. During this time, a new pregnancy must be avoided.